The New Kingdom is the period covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth dynasties of Egypt, from the 16th century BC to the 11th century BC.
The New Kingdom began with the expulsion of the Hyksos (Hykdod) who had invaded Northern Egypt. A succession of Pharaohs enlarged the country, eventually pushing Egypt's borders to their greatest territorial extent. New Kingdom Pharaohs ruled far into Nubia in the south, Libya in the west, and held wide territories in the Near East. Egyptian armies fought with Hittite armies for control of modern-day Syria. Most New Kingdom Pharaohs ruled from Thebes and were buried in the Valley of the Kings.
The Eighteenth Dynasty ruled from 1550 to 1295 BC:
|Son of Sekenenre-tao (Seventeenth dynasty)
Expelled the Hyksos from Northern Egypt.
|Amenhotep I (Amenophis)||Began the Temple of Karnak, Thebes. First Pharaoh buried in the Valley of the Kings||1525-1504|
|Thutmose I (Thutmosis)||-||1504-1492|
|Thutmose II (Thutmosis)||-||1492-1479|
|Built the Temple at Deir El Bahari.||1473-1458|
|Thutmose III (Thutmosis)||Co-ruler with his stepmother Hatshepsut; after she died he began expanding Egyptian rule into the near east.||1479-1425|
|Amenhotep II (Amenophis)||-||1427-1400|
|Thutmose IV (Thutmosis)||Restored the Great Sphinx of Giza
after a dream requested he do so.
|Amenhotep III (Amenophis)||Built much of the Temple of Luxor on the site of an older Opet shrine. Built the Colossi of Memnon and the temple behind them.||1390-1352|
|Amenhotep IV (Amenophis)
/ Akhenaten (Akhenaton)
|Founder of a brief period of monotheism ("Atenism") in Egypt, the worship of the Sun as symbol of the only God. During his rule there developed a very distinctive artistic style. His queen, Nefertiti, ruled as an equal.
Moved the capitol to Akhetaten.
|Meritaten||Daughter of Akhenaten, rule uncertain||???|
|Smenkhkare (Smenkhare)||Uncertain relationship to Akhenaten. May have been co-ruler or pharaoh for a short time.||1338-1337|
|Neferneferuaten||Probably a female ruler, may be Nefertiti or Meritaten, Akhenaten's wife and eldest daughter.||1337-1336|
|Tutankhamun (originally Tutankhaten)
|Previously thought to be the son of Akhenaten. Became Pharaoh at about age 8. Reinstated the old polytheistic religion and moved the capitol back to Thebes. Only Pharaoh whose tomb has been found largely intact.||1336-1327|
|Kheperkheprure Ai (Ay or Aya)||Regent for Tutankhamun, took the throne after Tut's death. Probably the father of Queen Nefertiti.||1327-1323|
|Horemheb (Haremhab)||Born a commoner.
Military General of Northern Egypt for Akhenaton and advisor to Tutankhamun
The Nineteenth Dynasty ruled from 1295 to 1186 BC:
|Ramesses I (Rameses)||-||1295-1294|
(Sethos I or Sety I)
|Re-established the military power of Egypt.|
AKA Samethis, Psammetichus or Psammuthis.
|Ramesses II the Great
(Rameses Sesostris or Ramessu)
|The Pharaoh usually associated with Moses.|
Reached a stalemate with the Hittites at the Battle of Kadesh in 1275 BC, after which the earliest known peace treaty was signed in 1258 BC. Built more temples and more statues of himself than any other Pharaoh.
|Merneptah (Merenptah)||A stele (carved stone monument) describing his campaigns in Libya and Palestine contains the first known reference to the Israelites.||1213-1203|
|Seti II (Sethos)||-||1200-1194|
(Tawosret or Twosre)
|Widow of Seti II|
Country largely ruled by a Syrian named Bay.
The Twentieth Dynasty ruled from 1185 to 1070 BC:
|Ramesses III (Rameses)||Fought the Sea Peoples in 1175 BC.|
Target of the first labor strike, among tomb workers.
|Ramesses IV (Rameses)||-||1152-1146|
|Ramesses V (Rameses)||-||1146-1142|
|Ramesses VI (Rameses)||-||1142-1134|
|Ramesses VII (Rameses)||-||1134-1126|
|Ramesses VIII (Rameses)||-||1126-1124|
|Ramesses IX (Rameses)||-||1124-1106|
|Ramesses X (Rameses)||-||1106-1102|
|Ramesses XI (Rameses)||-||1102-1069|
The Third Intermediate Period marked the end of the New Kingdom after the collapse of the Egyptian empire. A number of dynasties of Libyan origin ruled, giving this period its alternative name of the Libyan Period.
While not regarded as a dynasty per se, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes were nevertheless of such power and influence that they were effectively the rulers of Upper Egypt from 1080 to 945 BC.
|Nesbanebdjed II||Also known as Smendes II||992-990|
|Psusennes III||may be the same person as Psusennes II||969-945|
The Twenty-first Dynasty was based at Tanis and was a relatively weak group. Theoretically, they were rulers of all Egypt, but in practice their influence was limited to Lower (North) Egypt. They ruled from 1069 to 945 BC
|Nesbanebdjed I||Also known as Smendes I||1069-1043|
|Psusennes I||Intact tomb found at Tanis in 1940,|
silver coffin now in Cairo Museum.
|Osorkon the Elder||(Osochor) Also known as Osorkon I||984-978|
The pharaohs of the Twenty-second Dynasty were Libyans, ruling from around 945 to 720 BC:
|Shoshenq I (Sheshonq)||The biblical Shishaq||945-924|
|Osorkon I (Osochor)||Also known as Osorkon II||924-889|
|Shoshenq II (Sheshonq)||-||890-890/889|
|Harsiese||A rebel, at Thebes||875-862|
|Osorkon II (Osochor)||Also known as Osorkon III||874-834|
|Takelot II||now believed to be in 23rd Dynasty.||-|
|Shoshenq III (Sheshonq)||-||834-795|
|Osorkon V (Osochor)||Also known as Osorkon IV||740-720|
The Twenty-third Dynasty was a local group, again of Libyan origin, based at Leontopolis, that ruled from 836 to 720 BC: Other lines of rulers controlled Thebes (at times), Hermopopolis, Herakleopolis and Tanis.
|Takelot II||Previously thought to be a 22nd Dynasty pharaoh, he is now considered to be the founder of the 23rd||837-813|
|Pedubast||A rebel - seized Thebes from Takelot II||826-801|
|Shoshenq VI||Successor to Pedubast||801-795|
|Osorkon III (Osochor)||Son of Takelot II- recovered Thebes, then proclaimed himself king. May also be known as Osorkon IV.||795-767|
Not reckoned a dynasty as such, the Libu were yet another group of western nomads (Libyans) who occupied the western Delta from 805 to 732 BC.
The Twenty-fourth Dynasty was a short-lived rival dynasty located in the western Delta (Sais, known as Zau to the Egyptians), with only two Pharaohs ruling from 732 to 720 BC.
(Bocchoris or Bakenenref Wahkare)
The Late Period runs from 732 BC until Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BC, and includes periods of rule by Nubians, Persians, and Macedonians.
Nubians (Often called Ethiopians, they were centered in modern Sudan) invaded Egypt in 732 BC and took the throne, establishing the Twenty-fifth Dynasty which ruled until 656 BC.
|Piye||King of Nubia; conquered Egypt in 20th year; his full reign was at least 24 years, possibly 30+ years||752-721|
or d. 716
|Shebitku (Shebitko)||Synchronism with Sargon II of Assyria establishes his accession date at 707/706 BC||707-690|
|Most successful of Nubian Pharaohs,
built monuments across Egypt,
greatly expanded Gebel Barkal.
The Ethiopians were ultimately driven back into Nubia, where they established a kingdom at Napata (656-590), and, later, at MeroŽ (590 BC-4th cent. AD). There is speculation that priestly secret knowledge was obtained by the Ethiopians while they ruled Egypt, then transmitted to the present-day Dogon of West Africa and to the Olmec of America.
The Twenty-sixth Dynasty ruled from around 672 to 525 BC at Sais
|Necho I||-||672 - 664 BC|
|Psamtik I (Psammetichus)
|descendant of Tefnakhte||664 - 610 BC|
|Necho II (Wehimbre)||Herodotus records that during his reign an Egyptian expedition sailed around Africa.|
Began construction of a suez-like canal, warned by an oracle that the canal would make Egypt vulnerable to invasion.
|610 - 595 BC|
|Psamtik II (Psammetichus)||-||595 - 589 BC|
|Wahibre (Apries)||-||589 - 570 BC|
|-||570 - 526 BC|
|Psammetichus III||-||526 - 525 BC|
Egypt was conquered by the Persian Empire in 525 BC and controled by the Persians until 404 BC. The Achaemenid Shahs were acknowledged as pharaohs in this era, forming a "Twenty-seventh" Dynasty:
|Cambyses II||-||525 - 521 BC|
|Smerdis the Usurper||-||522 - 521 BC|
|Darius I the Great||-||521 - 486 BC|
|Xerxes I the Great||-||486 - 465 BC|
|Artabanus the Hyrcanian||-||465 - 464 BC|
|Artaxerxes I Longhand||-||464 - 424 BC|
|Xerxes II||claimant||424 - 423 BC|
|Sogdianus||claimant||424 - 423 BC|
|Darius II||-||424 - 404 BC|
The Twenty-eighth Dynasty lasted only 6 years, from 404 to 398 BC, with one Pharaoh:
|Amyrtaeus (Amrytaios)||Descendant of the Saite pharaohs of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty; led a successful revolt against the Persians||404 - 398 BC|
The Twenty-ninth Dynasty ruled from 398 to 380 BC:
|Nefaarud I||Also known as Nepherites I||398 - 393 BC|
|Psammuthes (Psammuthis)||-||393 BC|
|Hakor (Hakoris or Achoris)||-||393 - 380 BC|
|Nefaarud II (Nepherites II)||-||380 BC|
The Thirtieth Dynasty ruled from 380 until Egypt again came under Persian rule in 343 BC:
|Nectanebo I||Also known as Nekhtnebef|
or Napktnebef Kheperkare
|380 - 362 BC|
|Teos of Egypt||-||362 - 360 BC|
|Nectanebo II||-||360 - 343 BC|
Egypt again came under the control of the Achaemenid Persians. After the practice of Manetho, the Persian rulers from 343 to 332 BC are designated as the Thirty-first Dynasty:
|Artaxerxes III||Egypt came under Persian rule for the second time||343 - 338 BC|
|Artaxerxes IV Arses||Only reigned in Lower (North) Egypt||338 - 336 BC|
|Khabbabash||Leader of a Nubian revolt in Upper Egypt||338 - 335 BC|
|Darius III Codomannus||Upper (South) Egypt returned to Persian control in 335 BC||336 - 332 BC|
The Macedonians under Alexander the Great ushered in the Hellenistic (Greek) period with his conquest of Persia and Egypt. The Argeads ruled from 332 to 309 BC:
|Alexander III the Great||Conquered Persia, Egypt and all the way to India. It is said he died (in his early thirties) because there was nothing more he wished to conquer. Legend is that his tomb is in Egypt. It was plundered in ancient times, but its' location is lost.||332 - 323 BC|
|Philip III Arrhidaeus of Macedon||Feeble-minded half-brother of Alexander III||323 - 317 BC|
|Alexander IV of Macedonia||Son of Alexander III and Roxana||317 - 309 BC|
The second Hellenistic dynasty, the Ptolemies ruled Egypt from 305 BC until Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BC Some pharohs ruled together as a co-regency. These rulers were Greeks, more concerned with power than with good governance. They were in frequent conflict over the throne. One would imagine the people of Egypt wished to return to the days of Divine Pharaohs, whose legitimacy was rarely challenged.
|Ptolemy I Soter||Macedonian Greek General
under Alexander the Great
Abdicated in 285 BC; died in 283 BC
|305 - 285 BC|
|Berenice I||Wife of Ptolemy I||?-285 BC|
|Ptolemy II Philadelphos|
|Credited with founding the|
Library at Alexandria
|288 - 246 BC|
|Arsinoe I||Wife of Ptolemy II||284/81 -ca. 274 BC|
|Arsinoe II||Wife of Ptolemy II||277 - 270 BC|
|Ptolemy III Euergetes I||-||246 - 222 BC|
|Berenice II||Wife of Ptolemy III||244/3 - 222 BC|
|Ptolemy IV Philopator||-||222 - 204 BC|
|Arsinoe III||Wife of Ptolemy IV||220 - 204 BC|
|Ptolemy V Epiphanes||Upper (South) Egypt in revolt 207-186 BC
Rosetta stone dates from his reign.
|204 - 180 BC|
|Cleopatra I||Wife of Ptolemy V, co-regent with Ptolemy VI during his minority||193 - 176 BC|
|Ptolemy VI Philometor|
|Died 145 BC||180 - 164 BC|
|Cleopatra II||Wife of Ptolemy VI||173 - 164 BC|
|Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II||Installed by Seleucid Antiochus IV Epiphanes in 170 BC; ruled jointly with Ptolemy VI Philometor and Cleopatra II from 169 to 164 BC. Died 116 BC||171 - 163 BC|
|Ptolemy VI Philometor||Egypt under the control of Ptolemy VIII 164-3 BC; Ptolemy VI restored 163 BC||163 - 145 BC|
|Cleopatra II||Married Ptolemy VIII; led revolt against him in 131 BC and became sole ruler of Egypt.||163 - 127 BC|
|Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator||Proclaimed co-ruler by father; later ruled under regency of his mother Cleopatra II||144 - 145 BC|
|Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II||Restored||145 - 131 BC|
|Cleopatra III||Second wife of Ptolemy VIII||142 - 131 BC|
|Ptolemy Memphitis||Proclaimed King by Cleopatra II; soon killed by Ptolemy VIII||131 BC|
|Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II||Restored||127 - 116 BC|
|Cleopatra III||Restored with Ptolemy VIII; later co-regent with Ptolemy IX and X.||127 - 107 BC|
|Cleopatra II||Reconciled with Ptolemy VIII; co-ruled with Cleopatra III and Ptolemy until 116.||124 - 116 BC|
|Ptolemy IX Soter II||116 - 110 BC|
|Cleopatra IV||Shortly married to Ptolemy IX, but was pushed out by Cleopatra III||116 - 115 BC|
|Ptolemy X Alexander I||Died 88 BC||110 - 109 BC|
|Ptolemy IX Soter II||Restored||109 - 107 BC|
|Ptolemy X Alexander I||Restored||107 - 88 BC|
|Ptolemy IX Soter II||Restored again|
Died 80 BC
|88 - 81 BC|
|Berenice III||Forced to marry Ptolemy XI; murdered on his orders 19 days later||81 - 80 BC|
|Ptolemy XI Alexander II||Young son of Ptolemy X Alexander; installed by Sulla; ruled for 80 days before being lynched by citizens for killing Berenice III||80 BC|
|Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (Auletes)||Son of Ptolemy IX; died 51 BC||80 - 58 BC|
|Cleopatra V Tryphaena||Wife of Ptolemy XII, mother of Berenice IV||? - 57 BC|
|Cleopatra VI||Daughter of Ptolemy XII||? - 58 BC|
|Berenice IV||Daughter of Ptolemy XII; forced to marry Seleucus Kybiosaktes, but had him strangled.||58 - 55 BC|
|Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos||Restored; reigned briefly with his daughter Cleopatra VII before his death||55 - 51 BC|
|Jointly ruled with her father Ptolemy XII, her brother Ptolemy XIII, her brother-husband Ptolemy XIV, and her son Ptolemy XV; also known simply as Cleopatra, subject of two movies of that name and considered the last ruler of Ancient Egypt.||51 - 30 BC|
|Ptolemy XIII||Brother of Cleopatra VII||51 - 47 BC|
|Arsinoe IV||In opposition to Cleopatra VII||48 - 47 BC|
|Ptolemy XIV||Younger brother of Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIII||47 - 44 BC|
|Ptolemy XV Caesarion|
|Infant son of Cleopatra VII and Julius Caesar; aged 3 when proclaimed co-ruler with Cleopatra||44 - 30 BC|
Egypt became a province of Rome under Augustus Caesar in 30 BC. Subsequent Roman Emperors were accorded the title of Pharaoh, although exclusively in Egypt. Temples and tombs continued more or less in the Egyptian style until the Christian era.